is a byproduct of the natural gas industry. Its most important use is in MRI.
is metamorphic rock formed when sandstone is subjected to heat and pressure.
Pyroxene MineralsPyroxene Minerals
are a group of chain silicate minerals found in igneous and metamorphic rocks.
Phytoplankton BloomsPhytoplankton Blooms
are caused by an explosive growth rate of plankton in surface waters.
Bear AttacksBear Attacks
- Knowing how to react to a bear encounter or attack could save your life.
Mineral LusterWhat Is Luster?
Luster is the light-reflecting characteristics of a mineral specimen.
is the primary ore of zirconium and a gemstone that is available in many colors.
is a diverse material. This gallery includes photos of sand from around the world.
Crystal HabitCrystal Habit
is the external shape displayed by a crystal or an aggregate of crystals.
- Galleries of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rock photos with descriptions.
Hardness PicksHardness Picks
- Test for hardness with precise and easy-to-use hardness picks.
Mineral HardnessMohs Hardness Scale
is a set of reference minerals used for classroom hardness testing.
Largest HurricanesLargest Hurricanes
Are they determined by wind speed, value of damage, most deaths?
- A porous limestone composed almost entirely of fossil debris.
Rock and Mineral KitsRock & Mineral Kits
The best way to learn about rocks and minerals is with specimens!
Mount EtnaMount Etna
- The most active volcano in Europe continues an eruption that started in 2001.
The Acid TestThe Acid Test
- Geologists use dilute hydrochloric acid to identify carbonate minerals.
Volcanic ExplosivityVolcanic Explosivity
- Rating volcanic eruptions based upon the volume of tephra ejected.
Map of the OceansMap of the Oceans
- showing the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic and Southern Oceans.
Ruby and SapphireRuby and Sapphire
are the 2nd and 3rd most popular colored stones in the United States.
Types of MapsTypes of Maps
- Explore some of the most popular types of maps that have been made.
Teacher ResourcesTeacher Resources
- K-12 resources for teaching about earth science.
Tallest TsunamiTallest Tsunami
- A wave with a run-up height of 1720 feet occurred in Lituya Bay, Alaska.
Rock TumblersRock Tumblers
- All about rock tumblers and rock tumbling. Read before you buy a tumbler.
Mars MeteoritesMars Meteorites
Mars rovers have found dozens of meteorites while exploring the red planet.
Geology ToolsGeology Tools
Rock hammers, field bags, hand lenses, maps, hardness picks, gold pans.
- the only important ore of mercury. Used in pigments until its toxicity was realized.
Fool*s GoldFool*s Gold
is a name used for pyrite when its brassy color fools people looking for gold.
Utica ShaleUtica Shale
is a major source of oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids in PA, OH and WV.
OpalsPictures of Opal
- A collection of different types of opal from all around the world and Mars too!
is an orange to pink gemstone, a variety of beryl, that is growing rapidly in popularity.
- Descriptions, photos, articles, properties and uses for common minerals.
US Diamond MinesUS Diamond Mines
- Did you know that diamonds have been mined in the United States?
- the volcanic rock that cools so quickly that it becomes a natural glass.
Watch out for Ticks!Ticks
are a problem for geologists in some areas. Learn to recognize and avoid them.
American GemstonesMined in America
- Small mines in the United States produce a diversity of beautiful gemstones.
Google Earth - FreeFree Google Earth
software allows you to browse seamless world satellite images. Free.
are amorphous naturally-occurring inorganic solids that lack crystallinity.
Underwater VolcanoHawaii*s Next Island
could be growing in the Pacific Ocean right now. Its name is Lo*ihi.
is a purple silicate mineral, found only in Russia, used as a gem material.
- a manganese mineral used as an ore, a pink gem and an ornamental stone.
is a feldspar mineral that sometimes exhibits an iridescent play-of-color.
is the third hardest mineral. It is also the mineral of ruby and sapphire.
Colored DiamondsColored Diamonds
are diamonds with a noticeable body color. They can sell for over $1M/carat.
June 6th 1912Novarupta
- The most powerful volcanic eruption of the 20th century occurred in the U.S.A.
are gems assigned to the month of a person*s birth. They are popular gifts in the U.S.
Wall MapsWall Maps
- Wall maps of the world, continents, states and the USA.
Methane HydrateMethane Hydrate
deposits contain more fuel value than all other fossil fuels combined.
What is Geology?What is Geology?
The study of Earth materials, structures, processes and life over time.
Ethiopian OpalEthiopian Opal
- The new opal heavyweight that might give Australia a run.
- Used as an ore of copper, a pigment, ornamental stone and gem material.
- The intrusive igneous rock that underlies continents and countertops.
look like ordinary rocks on the outside but can be spectacular inside!
- The rock that has quickly transformed the oil and gas industry.
Geology BooksGeology Books
- A variety of books for reference, field trips, reading and more.
- Learn about the properties of diamond, its many uses, and diamond discoveries.
- Colorful images and articles about diamonds and colored stones.
UV Mineral LampPortable UV Lamp
- Short and long wave UV for fluorescent mineral viewing.
is the most popular green gemstone in the United States and most of the world.
What Is The Moho?What Is The Moho?
The Mohorovicic Discontinuity is the mantle/crust boundary.
Grape AgateGrape Agate
is a popular mineral specimen with the color and the shape of a bunch of grapes.
Petrified WoodPetrified Wood
is a fossil that forms when silica replaces and infills the cavities of wood.
Gem SilicaGem Silica
is a blue chalcedony colored by copper. It is the rarest and most valuable chalcedony.
An extrusive igneous rock with a high silica content, produced from granitic magma.
- Rocks that were once parts of planets or large asteroids.
is a variety of limestone formed from fine-grained marine sediment known as ooze.
Expansive SoilExpansive Soil
causes more damage than floods, hurricanes & tornadoes combined.
Tallest MountainTallest Mountain
- Everest has rivals in tallness, altitude and distance to the center of Earth.
Plate TectonicsPlate Tectonics
- Articles and maps about plate tectonics and the interior of Earth.
Crater of DiamondsCrater of Diamonds
- The only diamond mine in the world where you can be the miner.
Ant Hill GarnetsAnt Hill Garnets
- tiny gems that ants haul to the surface and discard on their anthill. Honest!
Hand LensHand Lens
A 10-power folding magnifier in a metal case. A frequently used lab and field tool.
Debris FlowsDebris Flows
are moving masses of loose mud, sand, soil, rock and water.
Rock ArtRock Art
- People have been marking on rocks for thousands of years.
Fire OpalFire Opal
is a transparent to translucent opal with a yellow, orange or red background color.
is the transparent variety of quartz with a yellow to orange to reddish color.
Rare Earth ElementsRare Earths
- Special materials used in electronics, defense, medical & many other products.
Storm SurgeStorm Surge
can be the most damaging and deadly aspect of a hurricane.
Cave of the HandsCave of the Hands
is a cave where ancient people painted hands about 9000 years ago.
Waterproof PaperWaterproof Paper
- Don't take chances with your field notes and maps. Use waterproof paper.
- A bluish-green gem material that has been used for over 6000 years.
Herkimer DiamondsHerkimer Diamonds
Doubly-terminated quartz crystals used as specimens and gems.
- The primary ore of titanium and source of most titanium dioxide.
Rock SaltRock Salt
is a sedimentary rock composed of the mineral halite. It has many uses!
Field CoursesField Courses
- Over 80 field courses for undergraduate geology students.
- Abundant in Earth*s mantle. A constituent of meteorites. The gem peridot.
Rocks on MarsRocks on Mars
Many of the rocks found on Mars are not very different from Earth rocks.
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- Articles about volcanoes, volcanic hazards and eruptions past and present.
What is a Maar?What is a Maar?
The second most common volcanic landscape feature on Earth.
Tallest WaterfallAngel Falls
in Venezuela is the tallest waterfall in the world - it is 3212 feet tall.
Don*t Go To JailKnow the Rules
before removing rocks, fossils or minerals from public or private property.
- an extremely colorful mineral and gem material.
Gifts That RockGifts That Rock
- What are the most popular gift items in the Geology.com store?
100+ Gemstones100+ Gems
- Photos of over 100 beautiful gems ranging from the popular to the obscure.
What is a Geyser?What is a Geyser?
Photos and information about geysers in many parts of the world.
Lightning Strikes MapLightning Strikes Map
by NASA shows the worldwide distribution of lightning activity.
was unknown until a few decades ago but it has erupted into wide popularity.
- The most important ore of copper for over five thousand years.
- The most important ore of iron. A source of mineral pigment since prehistory.
Fluorescent MineralsFluorescent Minerals
and rocks glow with spectacular colors under ultraviolet light.
Uses of MarbleThe Uses of Marble
are numerous and diverse. You will be surprised by how it is used.
Largest VolcanoesLargest Volcano
- That title is shared by Tamu Massif, Mauna Kea and Ojos del Salado.
Horizontal DrillingHorizontal Drilling
has opened new resources and significantly improved productivity.
is a chromite host rock, a source of diamonds and a possible carbon dioxide sink.
Mount VesuviusMount Vesuvius
- geology, history, maps, facts and more about the Vesuvius eruptions.
Uses of TalcTalc
is a soft mineral used in cosmetics, paper, paint, ceramics and many other products.
Mineral RightsMineral Rights
- Who owns the minerals under your land? Who wants to buy them?
Cinder ConesCinder Cones
are the smallest, simplest, and most common type of volcano.